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Modes of Winding Up of a Company as per Companies Act


Section 361 of the Companies Act, 2013 outlines a concise process for the dissolution of corporations under certain circumstances. To oversee the liquidation procedures, the Central Government appoints an Official Liquidator. The summary procedure provides an alternative mechanism for winding up a company that is not insolvent due to an inability to pay debts. In this article, we will provide a detailed overview of the modes of winding up of a company as per the Companies Act, encompassing the key concepts and procedures involved.

Key Abstract of Modes of Winding up of a Company

The Principles of Modern Company Law explain that winding up is the process through which a company's existence can be terminated, and its assets can be used to settle the claims of its creditors and members. An administrator, who acts as a liquidator, takes control of the company, collects its assets, settles its obligations, and ultimately distributes any surplus among the members according to their rights. It is important to note that during the winding up of a company, dissolution does not occur immediately. As stated by Bachawat J in Pierce Leslie & Co Ltd v. Violet Ouchterlong Wapshare, "winding up precedes dissolution." The provisions for "Winding Up" can be found in Chapter XX of the Companies Act, 2013, specifically from Section 270 to Section 365.

Winding up of a Company

Winding up refers to the process of liquidating a company's assets, wherein these assets are collected and sold to satisfy the accrued obligations. Once the expenses and charges are settled, the remaining funds are distributed among the shareholders. Consequently, when a company is subject to liquidation, it officially dissolves and ceases to exist.

Winding up is the legal procedure that results in the closure of a company and the cessation of all its operations. After the winding up process concludes, the company ceases to exist, and its assets are closely monitored to protect the interests of the stakeholders.

A Private Limited Company is a legal entity that must comply with numerous regulations. Failure to adhere to these compliance requirements may lead to penalties, fines, and even disqualification of the Directors from future company incorporations. It is often advisable to wind up a company that has become dormant or is no longer engaged in any business transactions.

The shareholders hold the power to initiate the dissolution of the company at their discretion. However, if there are secured or unsecured creditors or employees associated with the company, all outstanding debts must be settled first. Additionally, all bank accounts of the company should be closed upon clearing the debts. Furthermore, upon dissolution, the company's GST registration must be relinquished.

Once all the necessary registrations have been completed, a winding-up petition can be filed with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.

Modes of Winding Up of a Company - Modes

According to Section 270 of the Companies Act, 2013, a company can be wound up using two modes:

  1. Compulsory Winding Up of Company by Tribunal

  2. Voluntary Winding Up of Company

Compulsory Winding Up of Company by Tribunal

Section 271 of the Companies Act empowers a Tribunal to issue an order for the winding up of a company in certain circumstances detailed in Section 271(1) of the Act. These circumstances include:

  1. Sick Company

  2. Special Resolution

  3. Acts against the State

  4. Fraudulent Conduct of Business

  5. Failure to file financial statements with the Registrar

  6. It is just and equitable to wind up

Let's delve into each of these circumstances:

Sick Company: When a company is in a state where creditors possess a dominant position with substantial debt dues, the Committee of Creditors may appoint an administrator to delay the winding up process as per the Tribunal's discretion. This commonly occurs when a company is unable to pay its debts, making it impractical to revive or rehabilitate, leading to a recommendation for winding up.

Special Resolution: If a company passes a special resolution agreeing to wind up by the Tribunal, the decision to wind up ultimately lies with the Tribunal. However, the Tribunal has the discretion to reject winding up if it is detrimental to public interest or the company's interest.

Acts against the State: If a company carries out actions that undermine India's sovereignty, integrity, security, cordial relations with other nations, public order, decency, or morals, the Tribunal may order the winding up of the company.

Fraudulent Conduct of Business: If the Tribunal finds that the company's affairs have involved fraudulent activities or that the company was established for unlawful or fraudulent purposes, it may order the winding up of the company upon receiving an application from the Registrar of Companies or any other authorized person by the Central Government.

Failure to file financial statements with the Registrar: If a company fails to file its financial statements or annual reports with the Registrar for five consecutive fiscal years, as required under Section 271(1)(f) of the Act.

It is just and equitable to wind up: If the Tribunal deems it just and equitable to wind up a company, it must consider the interests of the company, its employees, creditors, shareholders, and the general public interest. The Tribunal must also explore all alternative remedies before reaching a decision to wind up the company. This provision ensures that winding up a company requires a valid and substantial reason to justify its liquidation.

Procedure of Modes of Winding Up of a Company - Compulsory Winding Up of Company by Tribunal

The winding up of a company by the Tribunal involves the following procedure:

  1. Appointment of a Liquidator: The Tribunal appoints a Liquidator under Section 275 to examine the company's debts and credits, ensuring that the company qualifies for compulsory winding up.

  2. Report by the Liquidator: Once appointed, the Liquidator prepares a report for the Tribunal as per Section 281 of the Act.

  3. Orders for Dissolution: Under Section 282 of the Act, the Tribunal issues orders to the liquidator for the dissolution of the company. As per the orders, the company's assets are transferred into the custody of the liquidator to settle the claims of the creditors and contributors.

  4. Dissolution Order: After carefully reviewing the audits and reports provided by the liquidator, the Court issues the order for dissolution under Section 302 of the Act. This order ensures the resolution of all obligations owed to the creditors and stakeholders of the company.

Voluntary Winding Up of Company

Section 304 of the Companies Act, 2013, specifies two statutory conditions under which a company may be voluntarily wound up. These conditions are:

  1. Expiration of the time for the company's duration, as stated in its articles, or the occurrence of any event prescribed in the articles for the dissolution of the company.

  2. Approval of a special resolution by the board of directors, requesting the voluntary winding up of the company.

Procedure of Modes of Winding Up of a Company - Voluntary Process

The process of voluntary winding up of a company involves the following steps:

  1. Board Meeting and Resolution: The directors convene a board meeting and approve a resolution that includes a statement confirming that they have examined the company's financial accounts. The resolution also states that the company has no outstanding debts, or if any, they will be paid using the proceeds from the sale of company assets during the voluntary winding up process.

  2. Notice for General Meeting: A written notice must be issued, along with a relevant explanatory statement, proposing the resolutions to wind up the company. The notice should call for a general meeting of the company.

  3. Passing the Resolution: In the general meeting, an ordinary resolution or an extraordinary resolution must be passed. The ordinary resolution is passed by a simple majority, while the extraordinary resolution requires a 3/4 majority. The winding up process officially commences on the date of the resolution.

  4. Creditors' Meeting: Following the resolution to wind up, a meeting with the company's creditors should be held on the same day or the following day. If at least two-thirds of the creditors agree that voluntary winding up is in the best interest of all stakeholders, the company can proceed with the voluntary winding up process.

  5. Appointment of Liquidator: Within 10 days of passing the resolution for winding up, a notification must be filed with the registrar, indicating the appointment of a liquidator.

  6. Resolution Documentation: Certified copies of the ordinary or extraordinary resolutions passed at the company's general meeting for winding up must be sent within 30 days after the meeting.

  7. Company's Affairs and Liquidator's Account: The winding up of the company must take place under the supervision of the liquidator, who prepares and audits the liquidator's account.

  8. Resolution for Disposal of Books and Documents: As the company's affairs reach their conclusion, a specific resolution should be passed to dispose of the company's books and documents.

  9. Filing Copy of Accounts and Application: After the Company's general meeting, the applicant has a two-week window to submit a copy of the accounts and file an application with the tribunal for a dissolution order.

  10. Issue of Dissolution Order: The tribunal is required to issue a dissolution order within 60 days of receiving the application.

  11. Filing Copy of Order with the Registrar: The company liquidator must file a copy of the dissolution order with the registrar.

  12. Issuance of Official Notice: Once the registrar obtains a copy of the tribunal's ruling, a notice will be published in the official gazette to signify the Company's status.


A Private Limited Company operates under the Companies Act, requiring ongoing compliance. If a company becomes inactive and wants to avoid these obligations, it can initiate the winding-up process. This involves filing an application with the Ministry of Corporate Finance, typically taking 3 to 6 months.

Frequently Asked Questions

The Companies Act provides for various modes of winding up a company, including voluntary winding up, winding up by the Tribunal, and winding up subject to the supervision of the Tribunal.

Voluntary winding up occurs when the members of the company decide to wind up the affairs voluntarily by passing a resolution in a general meeting.

Voluntary winding up can take place either by passing a special resolution or by a declaration of solvency, depending on the financial condition of the company.

Winding up by the Tribunal, also known as compulsory winding up, occurs when the company is unable to pay its debts or if the Tribunal deems it just and equitable to wind up the company.

The grounds for winding up by the Tribunal include failure to pay debts, oppression of minority shareholders, fraudulent activities, and public interest.


The Tax Heaven

Mr.Vishwas Agarwal✍📊, a seasoned Chartered Accountant 📈💼 and the co-founder & CEO of THE TAX HEAVEN, brings 10 years of expertise in financial management and taxation. Specializing in ITR filing 📑🗃, GST returns 📈💼, and income tax advisory. He offers astute financial guidance and compliance solutions to individuals and businesses alike. Their passion for simplifying complex financial concepts into actionable insights empowers readers with valuable knowledge for informed decision-making. Through insightful blog content, he aims to demystify financial complexities, offering practical advice and tips to navigate the intricate world of finance and taxation.

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