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The Impact of 28% GST on India’s Online Gaming Landscape

Understanding GST for Online Gaming

The introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India in 2017 brought about a major shift in various industries, including the online gaming industry. Prior to GST, online gaming platforms did not have any specific tax rules to follow. Nonetheless, the entry of GST has presented dramatic changes and obstacles for the sector. As gaming becomes popular in India, the introduction of GST was a turning point that required online gaming platforms to comply with new tax regimes. The changes affected how platforms operated as well as how millions of excited players played their games.

Different Aspects of GST Affecting Online Gaming

1. Tax Burden on Gamers

The advent of GST in India heightened the tax burden for online gamers, previously untouched by direct taxes. The introduction of a 28% GST on in-game purchases and subscription fees now imposes additional financial strain. Gamers must reconsider their virtual spending habits, mindful of the impact on their gaming budgets in the face of this increased tax.

2. Impact on Game Developers and Publishers

The onset of GST also impacted game developers and publishers in India. Previously able to sell games without additional taxes, they must now register as taxable entities, paying taxes on game sales. This introduces compliance challenges, particularly for smaller developers lacking the resources to navigate the tax system. Compliance struggles may hinder smaller developers' market competitiveness, while publishers must weigh tax implications, potentially resulting in heightened game prices for consumers.

3. Compliance and Reporting Challenges

GST has ushered in new compliance and reporting demands for online gaming platforms and gamers alike. Platforms must file regular GST returns and maintain transaction records, imposing an added administrative burden on both established platforms and startups. This necessitates significant time and resource investment in understanding and implementing the requisite processes. Startups in the online gaming sector may encounter obstacles in meeting compliance requirements, potentially impeding their growth and innovation. Gamers may also face delays or disruptions in accessing favourite games as platforms strive to adhere to the new regulations.

Advance Rulings on GST for Online Gaming and Casinos

India's gaming sector has seen remarkable growth, fueled by the surge of online gaming platforms. Yet, challenges have emerged, notably with the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST). This article delves into the nuances of GST in gaming, exploring specific cases and rulings and examining their profound impact on the industry.

1: Taxability of In-Game Purchases

A pivotal aspect addressed by recent advance rulings is the taxability of in-game purchases, a crucial element of the gaming experience for enthusiasts. The debate over whether these transactions should incur GST has been resolved by the GST authority, categorizing in-game purchases as "digital services" subject to an 18% GST rate. This ruling holds substantial implications for both gaming companies and players, impacting pricing strategies, and potential revenue for companies, and influencing gamers to reconsider spending habits due to increased costs.

2: Classification of Online Gaming Platforms

A consequential ruling pertains to the categorization of online gaming platforms for GST purposes. The GST authority designates them as "casinos" instead of "gaming arcades," warranting a heightened 28% GST rate on their services. This decision markedly amplifies tax liabilities for online gaming platforms, impacting the affordability of gaming services for the average Indian gamer. It may also precipitate shifts in consumer behavior and spending patterns within the industry.

Impact of Advance Rulings on the Gaming Industry

The recent GST rulings have cast a significant impact on India's gaming and casino industry. Gaming companies are compelled to reassess pricing strategies and business models to accommodate the additional GST burden. This adaptation requires resource reallocation for sustained profitability amidst a shifting landscape. On the gamers' front, the increased cost of in-game purchases, attributed to the GST inclusion, may prompt more cautious spending and potentially contribute to a decline in industry revenue. The elevated GST rate for online gaming platforms also poses accessibility challenges, potentially impeding the industry's overall growth. Ongoing dialogue is essential for refining the GST framework and fostering a resilient gaming ecosystem in India.

Input Tax Credit Claims for Casinos and Online Gaming Service Providers

Running a casino or offering online gaming services involves various expenses, from equipment purchases to platform maintenance, all subject to input taxes. The positive aspect for casinos and online gaming providers is the option to claim input tax credit. This mechanism allows businesses to offset taxes paid on purchases and expenses when calculating their final tax liability. In the gaming industry, where expenses are integral to operations, leveraging input tax credit becomes a strategic tool, potentially reducing overall tax liability and enhancing profitability.

Securing input tax credit for casinos and online gaming service providers requires adherence to specific procedures and consideration of key factors. Let's explore the crucial steps and factors involved:

1. Maintain accurate records and invoices.

Accurate and comprehensive record-keeping is paramount for a successful input tax credit claim. Casinos and online gaming service providers must meticulously gather and preserve invoices, receipts, and pertinent documents related to their business transactions. These records serve as crucial evidence supporting their input tax credit claim, ensuring resilience under scrutiny during audits.

2. Identify eligible expenses

Not every expense accrued by a casino or online gaming service provider qualifies for input tax credit. It's vital to discern eligible expenses before initiating a claim. Typically, costs directly associated with gaming operations, like acquiring gaming equipment, software licenses, and maintenance, may qualify. Conversely, expenses linked to activities beyond the core gaming operations, such as marketing or food services, might not be eligible. Grasping the criteria for expense eligibility is crucial to optimizing potential input tax credits.

3. Ensure compliance with tax regulations and documentation

Successful input tax credit claims necessitate adherence to tax regulations and meticulous documentation of expenses. Casinos and online gaming service providers should ensure they are registered as taxpayers, possess the requisite documentation. This entails valid tax identification numbers, registration certificates, and any other documents mandated by the local tax authority. Non-compliance with these regulations may result in the rejection of input tax credit claims, potentially causing avoidable financial setbacks.

4. Timely filing of tax returns and adherence to deadlines

To secure input tax credit, precise and timely filing of tax returns is imperative. Casinos and online gaming service providers need to track filing periods, submit returns promptly to showcase compliance, and evade penalties. Maintaining organizational discipline in tax return submissions ensures a seamless input tax credit claiming process for gaming businesses.

5. Seek professional advice and stay updated

In the dynamic tax landscape, constant changes necessitate wise decisions. Casinos and online gaming service providers should consult specialized tax experts for valuable insights. These professionals assist in navigating complex regulations, and ensuring compliance. Staying abreast of evolving tax laws is essential to optimize input tax credit claims.

Calculating GST on Online Gaming and Casinos

An online gaming platform keeps money in two ways:

A platform fee or an entry fee (usually 10-20%) for participating in the game.

A portion of pot money is kept aside for distribution as prize money.

A Game of skill will charge 18% only on the platform/rake fee charged. To illustrate, if 10 rummy players plan on betting Rs.500 and the platform charges 10% as a fee. Then,

Platform Fee = Rs.100 * 10% * 10

Platform Fee = Rs.100

GST chargeable = Platform Fee * 18%

GST chargeable = Rs.100 * 18%GST chargeable = Rs.18

However, for games of chance, the entire gross value will be liable to a 28% GST rate. Thus, in the previous example, on treating the game as a game of chance or treating those earnings similar to a casino bet, the tax incidence increases to Rs.28.

GST chargeable = Rs.100 * 28%

GST chargeable = Rs.28

Factors Influencing GST Calculations in the Gaming Sector

Calculating GST in the gaming sector involves considering several key factors that directly influence the tax liability of businesses. Let's explore these factors in detail:

1. Nature of Gaming Services

The nature of a business's gaming services directly influences GST calculation. Various gaming activities may incur different GST rates or exemptions. Traditional casino games like roulette may face distinct rates compared to online slot machines or poker. Businesses must precisely identify their gaming services to comprehend corresponding GST implications for accurate taxation.

2. Jurisdictional Regulations

When computing GST in the gaming sector, jurisdictional regulations significantly impact calculations. Varying rules exist at the country or state level for gaming and casinos. These regulations dictate GST rates, exemptions, reporting, and payment requirements. Businesses must be well-acquainted with their operating jurisdiction's specific regulations for precise and accurate GST calculations.

3. Price of Gaming Services

The pricing of gaming services impacts GST liability, often calculated as a percentage of the total service price in many jurisdictions. Therefore, businesses must precisely factor in all charges, including membership fees or commissions, when computing the total price for accurate GST assessments.

Understanding GST Rates for Online Gaming and Casinos

Currently, the following GST rates apply to online gaming and casino earnings:

For a game of skills, such as esports, puzzles, and some card games, an 18% GST is chargeable under HSN 998439 only on the platform’s commission/service fee or on gross gaming revenue (total stake value – distributed winnings).

For a game of chance, including gambling at casinos, a 28% GST is chargeable under HSN 999692 on the total bet value.

After the 50th GST Council meeting on 11th July 2023, 28% GST on full face value will be charged on online gaming, casinos and horse racing. The update is yet to be notified as necessary amendment needs to be done in GST law.

GST on Lottery

Excitement in the lottery field is at its peak. Whether buying a ticket in the hope of hitting a life-changing jackpot or anxiously awaiting the results of a draw, lotteries have become a popular global form of entertainment. This article will discuss specific tax considerations and rates related to lotteries under the Goods and Services Tax (GST).

GST and its Impact on Lotteries

Since its introduction in 2017, GST has brought about significant changes in the Indian taxation landscape. It aims to simplify the tax structure and make it more transparent while ensuring adequate revenue collection. When it comes to lotteries, GST has also had a significant impact.

Taxation of Lottery Tickets

Under the GST regime, the taxation of lottery tickets is unique and varies based on certain factors. These factors include the type of lottery, whether it is conducted by a state government or authorized by them, and the face value of the ticket. The GST rates for lotteries are categorized into two: state-authorized lotteries and state-run lotteries.

State-Authorized Lotteries

State-authorized lotteries refer to lotteries that are authorized by the state governments but are not directly conducted by them. These lotteries are typically run by private entities under the supervision of the state lottery departments. The GST rates for state-authorized lotteries are as follows:


  • Lottery tickets with a face value of Rs. 100 or less: 12% GST
  • Lottery tickets with a face value exceeding Rs. 100: 28% GST


It's important to note that the face value of the ticket determines the applicable GST rate, irrespective of the actual selling price.

State-Run Lotteries

On the other hand, state-run lotteries are lotteries that are directly conducted by the state government. These lotteries can have different GST rates based on various factors such as the prize money structure and the state in which it is conducted. Generally, the GST rates for state-run lotteries fall into the following categories:

  • Lotteries with prize money up to Rs. 10 lakhs: 0% GST
  • Lotteries with prize money between Rs. 10 lakhs and Rs. 50 lakhs: 12% GST
  • Lotteries with prize money above Rs. 50 lakhs: 28% GST

It's fascinating to see how the GST rates differ depending on the prize money. This creates a progressive tax structure that aims to balance revenue generation and fairness.

Impact on Players and Stakeholders

The introduction of GST in the lottery sector has had a significant impact on players and other stakeholders. The increased tax rates, especially in the case of state-authorized lotteries, have resulted in higher ticket prices. This, in turn, has affected the overall enthusiasm and participation in lotteries.

Lottery operators and sellers have also faced challenges due to the complexities involved in calculating and paying the GST. They need to ensure compliance with various state regulations and maintain accurate records. The added administrative burden has led to increased operational costs for these stakeholders.

Impact of 28% GST on India’s Online Gaming

In the dynamic realm of India's online gaming, the imposition of a 28% Goods and Services Tax (GST) rate has sent ripples through the industry. This comprehensive exploration unveils the intricacies of the GST's impact, presenting a detailed review of its effects on the gaming landscape.

Section 1:Unpacking the 28% GST Rate

This section serves as the foundation, offering a detailed examination of the components comprising the 28% GST rate and its specific implications within the online gaming sector.

Section 2:Player-Centric Analysis

Delving into the heart of the matter, we analyze the challenges faced by players as they navigate the new fiscal terrain, exploring shifts in the affordability of gaming products and potential alterations in gaming behavior.

Section 3:Platform Perspectives

Gaming platforms, the vital conduits connecting developers and players, confront a shifting landscape. This section dissects the challenges and opportunities platforms encounter, from increased operational costs to strategic shifts in revenue generation.

Section 4:Shaping the Industry's Future

Zooming out, we assess the broader impact on the industry's trajectory. By identifying challenges and opportunities, we aim to provide insights into how the industry may evolve and adapt in the aftermath of the 28% GST rate.

End of Line

The move to impose 28% GST on online gaming, casinos and horse racing is a major development for the Indian gaming industry. As a result, taxing the entire amount deposited will increase government revenue and bring offshore gaming sites under the ambit of GST. Therefore, this has raised concerns among some companies in the sector, who fear that it seeks to regulate and level the playing field. As a result, as the new tax rate comes into effect, there are expected to be changes within the industry in terms of their operations and their financial structures. Furthermore, the intervention of the Supreme Court will help in settling these tax disputes and thus promote growth in India's gaming sector.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q.1 Is GST applicable to online gaming?

Yes. Currently, games of chance are taxed at 28%, and skill games attract 18% GST. However, the government is looking to get rid of that gap by treating all sports as a demerit item and 28% GST rate will be applicable on it.

Q.2 Is GST applicable to casino earnings?

Yes. Presently, all casino earnings are levied a flat 28% GST.

Q.3 Will GST be charged on all casino bettings?

GST should be imposed only on the initial amount used to enter the casinos and not on subsequent betting through winnings of prior rounds.

Frequently Asked Questions

According to the new regulations, a flat 28% tax will be imposed on the total value of bets made in online games, irrespective of whether they are games of skill or chance. For example, if a player bets INR 100, the new tax system will charge a GST of INR 28 on that sum.

This decision was reflected in the recent decision made by the GST Council. In a subsequent meeting, it was clarified that GST would only be applied to the entry fee for contests, excluding any winnings. Any online game that involves money, such as rummy, poker, or fantasy sports, will be subject to a 28% GST.

Just like other digital media, the rapid growth of online gaming has raised various concerns including addiction, mental health issues, suicides, financial fraud, privacy, and data security. Money laundering and national security are also significant concerns.

The Finance Ministry in India has introduced new regulations for global online gaming platforms. They will now be subject to a 28% GST on online money gaming, casinos, and horse racing, effective from October 1. Valuation norms have also been established for tax assessment.

Globally, the gaming industry typically pays around 10-20% of its earnings in taxes. Increased GST rates will reduce the value users get from the platform. Moreover, online gaming platforms may see their profits decrease, potentially leading to a significant drop in foreign investment.


The Tax Heaven

Mr.Vishwas Agarwal✍📊, a seasoned Chartered Accountant 📈💼 and the co-founder & CEO of THE TAX HEAVEN, brings 10 years of expertise in financial management and taxation. Specializing in ITR filing 📑🗃, GST returns 📈💼, and income tax advisory. He offers astute financial guidance and compliance solutions to individuals and businesses alike. Their passion for simplifying complex financial concepts into actionable insights empowers readers with valuable knowledge for informed decision-making. Through insightful blog content, he aims to demystify financial complexities, offering practical advice and tips to navigate the intricate world of finance and taxation.

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